Bioinformatics: Definitions and explanations page 1 PDF Book

Learn bioinformatics terms with definitions and explanations, bioinformatics terminologies (Page 1) for science degree programs.


  1. What is 2D Page?
    The 2d-page stands for two-dimensional poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis, a technique in protein mixture is analyzed ...
  2. What is Alternative Splicing?
    During gene expression, a regulated process that generates multiple proteins form single dna template, the process ...
  3. What is Attribute?
    In a relational database, a column contains the data of common characteristics against each row, the ...
  4. What is Base Calling?
    Base calling is the process in which raw data is converted to nucleotide bases and assigned ...
  5. What is Beta Sheet?
    Several β-strands joined together through hydrogen bonding to form extended amphipathic pleated sheets in which side-chains ...
  6. What is Bioinformatics?
    Bioinformatics is the combination of three sciences i.e. biology, computer science and mathematics to understand biological ...
  7. What is Blocks?
    If there is no gap in the aligned sequences of less than 60 amino acid residues, ...
  8. What is Bootstrapping?
    Bootstraping is an approach used for examining the flaws in the sample of evolutionary tree by ...
  9. What is Bottom Up Approach?
    A clustering technique in which two points or information are clustered on the basis of similarity ...
  10. What is Bulge Loop?
    A secondary structure formed in nucleic acid helices when two or more consecutive bases remain unpaired ...
  11. What is Centimorgans?
    Centimorgans is a unit to measures the dna linkage or the frequency of recombination. the distance ...
  12. What is Coiled Coils?
    When different alpha helices from same or different protein, interact with each other form the structure ...
  13. What is Complete Linkage Method?
    Complete linkage method is the clustering method in which two entities are clustered on the basis ...
  14. What is Conjugation?
    Conjugation is the exchange of genetic material occurs between bacterial cells. this is the only horizontal ...
  15. What is Cooperativity?
    Cooperativity is a phenomenon in which promoters contain high number of transcription factors binding sites to ...
  16. What is Cytologic Map?
    The cytologic map is the way of determining position of genes on a chromosome on the ...
  17. What is Database?
    The collection of information is organized in such a way so that it is easy to ...
  18. What is Dichotomy?
    In a phylogenetic tree, if all the nodes in a tree have two descendent lineages, then ...
  19. What is Dihedral Angle and Tortional Angle?
    Torsion angles are the angle between two bonds. the cα atom forms two bonds around which ...
  20. What is DisulfiDe Bridge?
    A disulfide bridge is formed when a cysteine loses its hydrogen and forms a covalent bond ...
  21. What is E-Value?
    The e-value is a probability value that tells a given sequence match is by chance. the ...
  22. What is Emission Probability?
    In hidden markov model, the probability of sequence of emitted symbols related to each state, known ...
  23. What is Exhaustive Type?
    The algorithm that checks all the possible solutions of a specific problem and identifies the most ...
  24. What is Exon ShuffiIng?
    Exon shuffling is a molecular mechanism in which new genes are formed during evolution. it is ...
  25. What is First Order Markov Model?
    First-order markov model is a probabilistic model in which the present state of process depends on ...
  26. What is Gene Index Construction?
    It is a method used to cluster annotated expressed sequence tags (ests) by removing the duplications ...
  27. What is Genetic Markers?
    A genetic marker is a short dna sequence that can be a gene or a mutation, ...
  28. What is Genome Mapping?
    Genome mapping is the method that locates a particular gene and dna markers on a particular ...
  29. What is Global Alignment?
    Global alignment is to compare two or more sequences of roughly equal size. in global alignment ...
  30. What is Hairpin Bulge?
    The hairpin-bulge loop is an rna secondary structure in which loop residues of hairpin and bulge ...
  31. What is Hairpin Loop?
    Hairpin loop is a secondary structure formed when single stranded rna or dna formed base pair ...
  32. What is Helical Junctions?
    The helical junctions is a complex secondary structure formed when more than two base paired region ...
  33. What is Heuristic Type?
    The heuristic algorithm did not guarantee to find the best solution. these algorithms are fast and ...
  34. What is Homology Modeling and Comparative Modeling?
    Homology modeling or comparative modeling is a method for prediction of 3d stucture of the proteins ...
  35. What is Homology?
    If two sequences either dna, rna or protein are similar to each other, then it is ...
  36. What is Homoplasy?
    A homoplasy is a shared trait between set of species in separate lineages i.e. that trait ...
  37. What is Hyperplane?
    Hyperplane is a mathematical approach that identifies the true positive results and reduces the false positive ...
  38. What is Interologs?
    If a pair of conserved protein in one specie interact with their homolgs in other specie ...
  39. What is Kissing Hairpin?
    The kissing hairpin is an rna secondary structure in which one loop residues of hairpin is ...
  40. What is Knowledge Discovery?
    Knowledge discovery means to analyze the newly discovered data and extract the useful information from that ...
  41. What is Lateral Gene Transfer and Horizontal Gene Transfer?
    Horizontal gene transfer sometimes known as lateral gene transfer is a phenomenon in which transmission ...
  42. What is Lineage?
    In a phylogenetic tree, the path of branch that shows the relationship of ancestor and descendant ...
  43. What is Local Alignment?
    Local alignment is to compare two or more sequences of different size. in local alignment, local ...
  44. What is Locally Weighted Scatter Plot Smoother (Lowess) Regression?
    It is a statistical approachwhich is used in regression analysis that shows the relationship between set ...
  45. What is Logo?
    In bioinformatics, a sequence logo is a graphical representation of conserved sequences predicted from multiple sequence ...
  46. What is Markov Chain?
    Markov chain is the mathematical model that tells about the transitions from one state to any ...
  47. What is Masking?
    The method used to eliminate the ambigous part of sequence from both the query sequence and ...
  48. What is Molecular Clock?
    The molecular clock is a technique that measures the rate of mutation of biomolecules such that ...
  49. What is Monophyletic G+C17roup and Clade?
    A clade or monophyletic group is a branch of phylogenetic tree which represents the single common ...
  50. What is Motif?
    A motif is a short conserved sequence pattern among different species that perform a similar function. ...
  51. What is Multifurcating Node?
    In a phylogenetic tree, the internal node that has multiple child, the node is known as ...
  52. What is Neural Network?
    Neural network is a network in which multiple nodes are interlinked with each other to solve ...
  53. What is Node?
    In a phylogenetic tree, the starting point of branch at which more than one branches meet ...
  54. What is Nonsynonymous Substitutions?
    A nonsynonymous substitution is a mutation in nucleotide base pair in an exon of a gene ...
  55. What is Paraphyletic?
    Paraphyletic group include those descendents that share multiple ancestors. ...
  56. What is Peptide Bond?
    In polypeptide chain or protein, the two amino acids are joined by a covalent bond, the ...
  57. What is Phi Angle?
    The angle of rotation formed between n and cα bond. ...
  58. What is Phylogenetic Footprinting?
    Phylogenetic footprinting is a computational approach for identifying functional elements from sequence data from multiple genomes ...
  59. What is Phylogenetics?
    Phylogenetics deals with the evolutionary history i.e. the divergence of organisms, common ancestor of species, of ...
  60. What is Phylogram?
    A phylogram is an evolutionary tree in which the branch lengths gives information about the amount ...