General Biology: Definitions and explanations page 15 PDF Book

Learn general biology terms with definitions and explanations, biology terminologies (Page 15) for biology degree programs.


  1. What is Root?
    In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the ...
  2. What is RT-PCR?
    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) is a laboratory technique combining reverse transcription of rna into ...
  3. What is Ruminants?
    Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in ...
  4. What are Salivary glands?
    The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts. ...
  5. What is Saturated fatty acid?
    A saturated fatty acid chain is formed when no double bonds are present on the chain ...
  6. What are Scaffolding proteins?
    Scaffold proteins are important regulators of many important signaling pathways. these proteins also clasp proteins in ...
  7. What is Science?
    Science is a systematic approach that builds and organizes knowledge with the help of predictions, facts ...
  8. What is Scion?
    Grafting and budding are horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so ...
  9. What is Scrotum?
    The scrotum is a reproductive structure in males that consists of a hanging sack of skin ...
  10. What are Second messengers?
    Second messengers are molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface - such ...
  11. What is Secondary growth?
    Secondary growth is the growth that results from cell division in the cambia or lateral meristems ...
  12. What is Seed?
    A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. the formation of the ...
  13. What is Self pruning?
    When a tree sheds a dead branch. this occurs in nature when a tree is in ...
  14. What is Self thinning?
    The self-thinning rule describes plant mortality because of competition in crowded even-aged stands. this is basically ...
  15. What is Semiconservative model?
    Semiconservative replication describes the mechanism of dna replication in all known cells. it derives its name ...
  16. What are Semilunar valves?
    The aortic and pulmonary valves are located at the base of the aorta and the pulmonary ...
  17. What is Senescence?
    Senescence or biological aging is the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics. the word senescence be used ...
  18. What are Sepals?
    A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants). usually green, sepals typically ...
  19. What is Septa?
    A hypha consists of one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall. in most ...
  20. What are Sex chromosomes?
    Sex chromosomes are those that determine the sex of an individual. for example a female inherits ...
  21. What are Sex linked genes?
    Any gene that is present on the sex chromosome is called the sex linked gene. therefore ...
  22. What is Sexual dimorphism?
    Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics ...
  23. What is Sexual reproduction?
    A kind of reproduction that involves the fusion of gametes and production of a daughter cell ...
  24. What is Sexual selection?
    Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates ...
  25. What is Shared ancestral character?
    Traits that have been inherited to species by their ancestors is known as shared ancestral traits. ...
  26. What is Shared derived character?
    A derived character is one that evolved in the lineage leading up to a clade and ...
  27. What is Shoot system?
    The shoot system includes organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers, and fruits and usually it ...
  28. What are Short day plants?
    A plant that requires a long period of darkness, is termed a "short day" or a ...
  29. What are Short tandem repeats?
    A short tandem repeat is a microsatellite, consisting of a unit of two to thirteen nucleotides ...
  30. What is Sickle cell disease?
    Sickle cell disease is a group of blood disorders that are commonly inherited from a person's ...
  31. What is Signal peptide?
    A signal peptide is a short peptide present at the n-terminus of the majority of newly ...
  32. What is Signal transduction?
    Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is conveyed through a ...
  33. What is Signal-recognition particle (SRP)?
    The signal recognition particle is an abundant, cytosolic, universally conserved ribonucleoprotein that recognizes and targets specific ...
  34. What is Silent mutation?
    Silent mutations are mutations in dna that do not have an observable effect on the organism's ...
  35. What is Simple fruit?
    A fruit that develops from a single ovary in a single flower. simple fruits may be ...
  36. What is Simple sequence DNA?
    A simple sequence dna is the same as a short tandem repeat or a microsatellite. t ...
  37. What is Single circulation?
    Single circulation is the type of circulatory system that occurs in fishes, in which the blood ...
  38. What are Single strand binding proteins?
    Single-stranded binding proteins are a class of proteins that have been found in organisms ranging from ...
  39. What is Sinoatrial mode?
    The sinoatrial node is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium ...
  40. What is siRNA?
    Sirna, which stands for small interfering ribonucleic acid, is a class of double-stranded rna molecules. it ...
  41. What are Sister chromatids?
    A sister chromatid refers to the similar copies formed by the dna replication of a chromosome. ...
  42. What is Skeletal System?
    The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. it can ...
  43. What is Small intestine?
    The small intestine or small bowel is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract where most of ...
  44. What is Smooth muscle?
    Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. it is divided into two subgroups; the single-unit (unitary) ...
  45. What is SNP?
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called snps, are the most common type of genetic variation among people. ...
  46. What are Soil horizons?
    A soil horizon is a layer parallel to the soil surface, whose physical, chemical and biological ...
  47. What is Soil salinization?
    Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil. the process of increasing the salt content ...
  48. What is Solute potential?
    Solute potential is also called osmotic potential because solutes affect the direction of osmosis. the solutes ...
  49. What is Solute?
    The substance that gets dissolved in the solvent. a solute is defined as the substance that ...
  50. What is Solution?
    A mixture of two substances that dissolve in to each other and are uniformly distributed throughout ...
  51. What is Solvent?
    The liquid part of a solution that acts as a dissolving agent and dissolves all the ...
  52. What are Somatic cells?
    All the cells in the body are termed somatic cells with the exclusion of the reproduction ...
  53. What is Speciation?
    Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species. speciation may also ...
  54. What is Specific heat?
    Specific heat is a physical property of matter and is the energy required per mass of ...
  55. What is Spectrophotometer?
    The spectrophotometer is an optical instrument for measuring the intensity of light relative to wavelength. electromagnetic ...
  56. What is sperm?
    Sperm is the reproductive cell of a male. a sperm cell that has a flagella and ...
  57. What is Spermatogenesis?
    Spermatogenesis is the route through which haploid spermatozoa develop from their ancestoral germ cells. this occurs ...
  58. What is Sphincter?
    A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or ...
  59. What is Spliceosome?
    A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the nucleus of eukaryotic ...
  60. What is Spongy mesophyll?
    A layer of cells in the interior of leaves, consisting of loosely arranged, irregularly shaped cells ...