General Biology: Definitions and explanations page 2 PDF Book

Learn general biology terms with definitions and explanations, biology terminologies (Page 2) for biology degree programs.


  1. What is Apical bud?
    Plants that have apical buds usually have the tendency to grow just the terminal bud on ...
  2. What is Apical dominance?
    Apical dominance is the phenomenon whereby the main and the thicker central stem of the plant ...
  3. What are Apical meristems?
    Apical meristems are the completely undifferentiated meristems in a plant. these differentiate into three kinds of ...
  4. What is Apoplast?
    Inside a plant, the apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane within which material can ...
  5. What is Apoplastic route?
    Inside a plant, the apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane within which material can ...
  6. What is Apoptosis?
    Apoptosis is a type of planned death of the cell that occurs in multicellular organisms. several ...
  7. What is Appendix?
    The appendix is a small, pouch-like sac of tissue that is located in the first part ...
  8. What are Aquaporins?
    Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that serve as channels in the transfer of water, and in ...
  9. What is Aqueous Solution?
    Any solution that has the water as a solvent is called an aqueous solution. as water ...
  10. What are Aquifers?
    An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials. groundwater ...
  11. What is Arbuscular mycorrhizae?
    An arbuscular mycorrhiza is a type of mycorrhiza in which the symbiont fungus penetrates the cortical ...
  12. What are Arteries?
    An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to ...
  13. What are Arterioles?
    An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from ...
  14. What is Artificial selection?
    Artificial selection is also termed as selective breeding. the breeding of plants and animals is done ...
  15. What is Asexual reproduction?
    Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and ...
  16. What is Aster?
    An aster is a cellular structure shaped like a star, comprising of a centrosome and its ...
  17. What is Asymmetrical cell division?
    A good example of asymmetric cell division is the formation of guard cells that typically involves ...
  18. What is Atherosclerosis?
    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build ...
  19. What is Atom?
    An atom is the smallest unit of all ordinary matter. it has the properties of a ...
  20. What is Atomic nucleus?
    An atomic nucleus is the core of an atom is consists of protons and neutrons. these ...
  21. What is Atomic number?
    The atomic number or proton number, denoted by the symbol z, of a chemical element is ...
  22. What is ATP synthase?
    The atp synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme that is present in the inner membrane. it has ...
  23. What is Atria?
    The atrium is the upper chamber through which blood enters the heart. there are two atria ...
  24. What is Atrioventricular valve?
    These are the mitral and tricuspid valves, which are situated between the atria and the ventricles ...
  25. What is Autoimmune response?
    Such a loss of self-tolerance has many forms. for example in systemic lupus erythematosus, commonly called ...
  26. What is Autoploidy?
    An autopolyploid nucleus is a type of polyploid nucleus which, is formed when the single cell ...
  27. What are Autosomes?
    All the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes are called the autosomes. the dna in autosomes ...
  28. What are Autotrophs?
    An autotroph or primary producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances ...
  29. What is Auxin?
    Auxin has multiple functions. it stimulates stem elongation (low concentration only) promotes the formation of lateral ...
  30. What is Axillary bud?
    The axillary bud (or lateral bud) is an embryonic shoot located in the axil of a ...
  31. What is Bacteriophage?
    Virus not only attack the animal or human cells but they can also attack bacteria. for ...
  32. What is Bacteroid?
    The outer host-cell derived symbiosome membrane encloses a space called the symbisome space or the peribacteroid ...
  33. What is Balancing selection?
    Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles are actively maintained ...
  34. What is Bark?
    Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. plants with bark include ...
  35. What is Barr body?
    A barr body is the inactive x chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in ...
  36. What is Base?
    N chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide ions, are slippery to the ...
  37. What is Benign tumor?
    A benign tumor is not a malignant tumor which is basically the harmful one and leads ...
  38. What is Bilateral symmetry?
    In bilateral symmetry (also called plane symmetry), only one plane, called the sagittal plane, divides an ...
  39. What is Bile?
    Bile is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, ...
  40. What is Binomial?
    Binomial nomenclature, also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species ...
  41. What are Bioenergetics?
    Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems. ...
  42. What are Biofilms?
    A biofilm comprises any consortium of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often ...
  43. What are Biofuels?
    A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and ...
  44. What is Biogeography?
    Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through ...
  45. What are Bioinformatics?
    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data it ...
  46. What is Biomass?
    Biomass is plant or animal material used for energy production, heat production, or in various industrial ...
  47. What is Bioremediation?
    Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by ...
  48. What is Biotechnology?
    Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make ...
  49. What is Biotic stress?
    Biotic stress is stress that occurs as a result of damage done to an organism by ...
  50. What is Blastula?
    The blastula is a hollow sphere of cells which are referred to as blastomeres. they surround ...
  51. What is Blood?
    Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as ...
  52. What is Body cavity?
    A body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism other than those of vessels ...
  53. What is Bolus?
    A bolus is a ball-like mixture of food and saliva that forms in the mouth during ...
  54. What is Bone?
    Bone-forming cells called osteoblasts deposit a matrix of collagen. calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions combine into ...
  55. What is Bottleneck effect?
    A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population ...
  56. What are Brassinosteroids?
    Promote cell expansion and cell division in shoots; promote root growth at low concentrations, inhibit root ...
  57. What is Breathing?
    Breathing is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas ...
  58. What is Bronchi?
    A bronchus is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the ...
  59. What are Bronchioles?
    The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth ...
  60. What is Buffer?
    A buffer is used when the ph of a solution needs to be kept constant. its ...