General Biology: Definitions and explanations page 4 PDF Book

Learn general biology terms with definitions and explanations, biology terminologies (Page 4) for biology degree programs.


  1. What is Codominance?
    Codominance is a form of dominance wherein the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote ...
  2. What is Codon?
    The triplicate code that is present on the mrna strand is called as codons. this code ...
  3. What is Coenocytic fungi?
    The term coenocyte is a multinucleate cell which can result from multiple nuclear divisions without their ...
  4. What is Cofactor?
    A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's ...
  5. What are Cohesins?
    Cohesin is a protein complex that connects two sister chromatids together. cohesins hold sister chromatids together ...
  6. What is Cohesion tension hypothesis?
    Cohesion tension hypothesis explains the ascent of water from roots to leaves in a plant as ...
  7. What is Commensalism?
    An example of commensalism is that more than 150 bacterial species live on the surface of ...
  8. What are Communities?
    A large array of individuals that inhabit a place. they have certain characteristics in common for ...
  9. What are Complement proteins?
    The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances or complements the ability ...
  10. What is Complementary DNA?
    In genetics, complementary dna (cdna) is dna synthesized from a single-stranded rna (e.g., messenger rna (mrna) ...
  11. What is Complete dominance?
    Complete dominance is a form of dominance in heterozygous condition wherein the allele that is regarded ...
  12. What are Complete flowers?
    A "complete" flower, like that of ranunculus glaberrimus, has a calyx of outer sepals and a ...
  13. What is Compound?
    A substance that consists atoms of two of more elements is called a compound. these atoms ...
  14. What is Concentration gradient?
    A concentration gradient occurs where the concentration of any particles changes over a certain distance. for ...
  15. What is Conformer?
    Conformers must change their environment to survive temperature variations. the older term - cold-blooded - is ...
  16. What are Conifers?
    Conifers are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, pinopsida. they are ...
  17. What is Conjugation?
    Conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by ...
  18. What is Connective tissue?
    Connective tissue (ct) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial ...
  19. What are Consumers?
    Consumers are organisms that need to eat food to obtain their energy. these organisms are called ...
  20. What is Contraception?
    Birth control is also known as contraception. it is a method that is used to prevent ...
  21. What are Control elements?
    Control element is basically a generic term for a region of dna, such as a promoter ...
  22. What is Controlled experiment?
    In a controlled experiments, only one variable is changed and the rest are kept constant to ...
  23. What are Convergent evolution?
    Convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits ...
  24. What is Coprophagy?
    Coprophagia is the consumption of feces. coprophagy refers to many kinds of feces-eating, including eating feces ...
  25. What is Corepressor?
    A corepressor is a small molecule or a protein that inhibits the expression of genes with ...
  26. What is Cork cambium?
    Cork cambium is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the epidermis. the ...
  27. What is Cotyledons?
    A cotyledon is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and ...
  28. What is Counter current exchange?
    Counter current exchange is the mechanism by which some property of a fluid, such as heat ...
  29. What is Countercurrent exchange?
    Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature usually heat or some chemical, between two flowing ...
  30. What is Covalent bond?
    A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share their valence electrons. these electrons are called ...
  31. What is Cri du chat syndrome?
    Cri du chat syndrome is a chromosomal disorder in which there is a deletion of the ...
  32. What is Cristae?
    Cristae is basically the folding of the membrane of mitochondria. the cristae gives the inner membrane ...
  33. What is Crop rotation?
    Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops ...
  34. What is Cross pollination?
    Cross-pollination occurs when pollen is delivered from the stamen of one flower to the stigma of ...
  35. What is Crossing over?
    Crossing over is the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, ...
  36. What is Cuboidal epithelium?
    Cuboidal epithelium has cells whose height and width are approximately the same (cube shaped). the cell ...
  37. What is Cuticle?
    Plant cuticles are protective, hydrophobic, waxy coverings produced by the epidermal cells of leaves, young shoots ...
  38. What is Cyclin?
    Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle ...
  39. What is Cytogenetic map?
    A cytogenetic map is the visual appearance of a chromosome when stained and examined under a ...
  40. What are Cytokines?
    Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. ...
  41. What is Cytokinesis?
    Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division in which the cytoplasm of a parental cell ...
  42. What are Cytokinins?
    Cytokinins help regulate cell division in shoots and roots, modify apical, dominance and promote lateral bud ...
  43. What are Cytoplasmic determinants?
    Cytoplasmic determinants are special molecules or proteins that are present in the cell and play a ...
  44. What are Cytoplasmic genes?
    Not all the genes are present in the nucleus. some of the genes are present outside ...
  45. What is Cytoskeleton?
    A cytoskeleton is an important support structure present in the cytoplasm of all cells. it can ...
  46. What is Cytosol?
    The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (icf) or cytoplasmic matrix, or groundplasm, is a clear ...
  47. What are Cytotoxic T cells?
    A cytotoxic t cell is also known as t lymphocyte or ctl etc. this cell is ...
  48. What is Data?
    Statistics and facts collected for reference, observation and analysis is known as data. data is a ...
  49. What are Day neutral plants?
    Some plants form flowers regardless of day length. botanists call these "day neutral" plants as they ...
  50. What is De-etiolation?
    De-etiolation, is a series of physiological and biochemical changes a plant shoot undergoes when emerging from ...
  51. What are Decomposers?
    Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry ...
  52. What are Deletions?
    A deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) is a mutation or a genetic ...
  53. What is Denaturation?
    When an external stress destroys a protein, it is said to be denatured. an external stress ...
  54. What are Dendritic cells?
    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells of the mammalian immune system. their main function is to process ...
  55. What is Dendrochronology?
    Dendrochronology is basically a tree-ring dating. it is the scientific method of dating tree rings, which ...
  56. What is Density-dependent inhibition?
    When the dividing and growing cells run out of space sometimes and they face a kind ...
  57. What is Dentition?
    Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. in particular, it ...
  58. What is Dermal tissue system?
    The dermal tissue is the plants protective layer. like our skin, it forms the first line ...
  59. What are Desmosomes?
    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that provide strong adhesion between cells. these junctions link adjacent cells through ...
  60. What is Determinate growth?
    Determinate growth, simply put, is the one that stops once a genetically pre-determined structure has completely ...