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General Biology: Definitions and explanations page 5 PDF | Download eBooks

Learn general biology terms with definitions and explanations, biology terminologies (Page 5) for biology degree programs.


  1. What is Diploid?
    A diploid cell is any cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes. which means they ...
  2. What is Haploid?
    Haploid is the term used when a cell has half the normal number of chromosomes or ...
  3. What is Fertilization?
    Fertilization is the reproductive process that happens from the fusion of gametes to form a new ...
  4. What is Zygote?
    A zygote is the union of the sperm cell and the egg cell or it can ...
  5. What is Meiosis?
    Meiosis is a special type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating ...
  6. What are Alternation of generations?
    Alternation of generations, which is also known as metagenesis, is the type of life cycle that ...
  7. What is Allele?
    An allele is a variant form of a gene. some genes have a variety of different ...
  8. What is Crossing over?
    Crossing over is the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, ...
  9. What is Chiasmata?
    A chiasma is the point of contact or a physical link between two chromatids belonging to ...
  10. What is Synaptonemal complex?
    The synaptonemal complex is a protein structure that forms between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. this complex ...
  11. What is Synapsis?
    Synapsis is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. during synapsis, a possible ...
  12. What are Recombinant chromosomes?
    Recombinant chromosomes are formed when there is shuffling of genetic material between the homologous chromosomes. this ...
  13. What is Character?
    A heritable feature which is acquired from the parents is called a character. for example in ...
  14. What is Trait?
    Every variant for a character is called a trait. for example for skin color, which is ...
  15. What is True breeding?
    A true breeding is a kind of breeding wherein the parents would produce offspring that would ...
  16. What is Hybridization?
    When plants of different varieties are bred together, the process is termed is hybridization. this is ...
  17. What is P generation?
    P generation is the name given to the parental generation. the parent plants are usually denoted ...
  18. What is F1 generation?
    In mendelian genetics, an f1 hybrid which is also known as filial 1 hybrid, is the ...
  19. What is Dominant allele?
    An allele that has a dominant characteristic and it has the ability to express itself even ...
  20. What is Recessive allele?
    A recessive allele can only express itself when it is in the homozygous form. a good ...
  21. What is Law of segregation?
    Law of segregation states that during gamete formation, the alleles for each gene segregate from each ...
  22. What is Punnett Square?
    The punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a ...
  23. What is Homozygous?
    Homozygous is a word that refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both ...
  24. What is Heterozygous?
    Heterozygous is a diploid organism when at a particular gene locus has two different alleles (one ...
  25. What is Phenotype?
    The phenotype of an organism is the composite of the organism's observable characteristics or traits, including ...
  26. What is Genotype?
    The genetic makeup of an individual that gives rise to different phenotype. the genetic makeup cannot ...
  27. What is Testcross?
    In genetics, a test cross was first introduced by gregor mendel. this type of test involves ...
  28. What are Monohybrids?
    A hybrid that is heterozygous with respect to a specified gene. it is just a term ...
  29. What is Monohybrid cross?
    A monohybrid cross is a mating between two organisms with different variations at one genetic chromosome ...
  30. What are Dihybrids?
    This term is used to describe a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different ...
  31. What is Dihybrid cross?
    Dihybrid cross is a cross between two different lines/genes that differ in two observed traits. according ...
  32. What is Complete dominance?
    Complete dominance is a form of dominance in heterozygous condition wherein the allele that is regarded ...
  33. What is Incomplete dominance?
    Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait ...
  34. What is Codominance?
    Codominance is a form of dominance wherein the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote ...
  35. What is Epistasis?
    Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene is dependent on the presence of ...
  36. What is Polygenic inheritance?
    Polygenic inheritance occurs when one characteristic is controlled by two or more genes. often the genes ...
  37. What is Quantitative character?
    A quantitative trait is a measurable phenotype that depends on the cumulative actions of many genes ...
  38. What is Multifactorial character?
    The type of hereditary pattern seen when there is more than one genetic factor involved and, ...
  39. What is Pedigree?
    A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a ...
  40. What are Carriers?
    An organism that carries a copy of the gene but is not expressing it, usually this ...
  41. What is Amniocentesis?
    Sometimes the fetus can show signs of a disease or a disorder. to screen that, some ...
  42. What is Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)?
    Chorionic villus sampling, sometimes called "chorionic villous sampling", is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine ...
  43. What is Multiplication rule?
    Rule of multiplication if events a and b come from the same sample space, the probability ...
  44. What is Addition rule?
    When two events, a and b, are mutually exclusive, the probability that a or b will ...
  45. What is Chromosome theory of inheritance?
    This theory is also called the boveri-sutton chromosome theory is a fundamental unifying theory of genetics ...
  46. What is Wild type?
    Wild type refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs ...
  47. What are Sex linked genes?
    Any gene that is present on the sex chromosome is called the sex linked gene. therefore ...
  48. What are X linked genes?
    This is the same as sex linked gene except the gene is specifically located on the ...
  49. What is Hemophilia?
    Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder that slows the blood clotting process. people with this condition experience ...
  50. What is Barr body?
    A barr body is the inactive x chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in ...
  51. What are Linked genes?
    Linked genes are genes that are likely to be inherited together because they are physically close ...
  52. What is Genetic recombination?
    Genetic recombination (also known as genetic reshuffling) is the exchange of genetic material between different organisms ...
  53. What is Genetic map?
    Gene mapping describes the methods used to identify the locus of a gene and the distances ...
  54. What is Map unit?
    In genetics, a centimorgan or map unit is a unit for measuring genetic linkage. it is ...
  55. What is Cytogenetic map?
    A cytogenetic map is the visual appearance of a chromosome when stained and examined under a ...
  56. What are Linkage groups?
    Linkage group, in genetics, all of the genes on a single chromosome. they are inherited as ...
  57. What is Non disjunction?
    Sometimes due to an error during cell division, the chromosomes fail to separate properly. there are ...
  58. What is Aneuploidy?
    Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a ...
  59. What is Monosomy?
    Monosomy is an example of aneuploidy when the chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. monosomy results ...
  60. What is Trisomy?
    Trisomy is another important example of aneuploidy when the chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. trisomy ...