General Biology: Definitions and explanations page 7 PDF Book

Learn general biology terms with definitions and explanations, biology terminologies (Page 7) for biology degree programs.


  1. What is Founder effect?
    The founder effect basically describes the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population ...
  2. What is Fragmentation?
    Fragmentation of plants is also known as splitting. it is a method of reproduction is seen ...
  3. What is Frameshift mutation?
    A frameshift mutation is a genetic mutation caused by indels of a number of nucleotides in ...
  4. What is Frequency dependent selection?
    Frequency-dependent selection is an evolutionary process by which the fitness of a phenotype depends on its ...
  5. What is Fruit?
    A fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ...
  6. What are Functional groups?
    A group of atoms that are directly responsible for participating in chemical reactions. a functional group ...
  7. What is G protein?
    G proteins are also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. they beolong to a family of proteins ...
  8. What is G0 phase?
    The g0 phase is a period in the cell cycle in which cells exist in a ...
  9. What is Gall bladder?
    Gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released ...
  10. What are Gametes?
    Gametes are reproductive cells that join together to make a zygote or a fertilized egg. the ...
  11. What are Gap junctions?
    Gap junctions are a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types. they directly connect ...
  12. What is Gas exchange?
    Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface. ...
  13. What is Gastric juice?
    Gastric juice is a strongly acidic liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the ...
  14. What is Gastrovascular cavity?
    The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: ...
  15. What is Gastrulation?
    Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered ...
  16. What is Gel electrophoresis?
    Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory method used to separate mixtures of dna, rna, or proteins according ...
  17. What is Gene annotation?
    Dna annotation or genome annotation is the process of identifying the locations of genes and all ...
  18. What is Gene cloning?
    Gene cloning is the process in which a gene of interest is located and copied out ...
  19. What is Gene expression?
    Gene expression is the process through which the gene expresses itself and transcribes in to a ...
  20. What is Gene flow?
    The gene flow is also known as gene migration or allele flow. it is the transfer ...
  21. What is Gene pool?
    A gene pool is the collection of different genes within an interbreeding population. the term gene ...
  22. What is Gene?
    A gene is a sequence of nucleotides in dna or rna that codes for a molecule ...
  23. What are Genes?
    A section of dna that codes for usually one protein. it is a basic and physical ...
  24. What is Genetic drift?
    Genetic drift is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant in a population ...
  25. What is Genetic engineering?
    Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's ...
  26. What is Genetic map?
    Gene mapping describes the methods used to identify the locus of a gene and the distances ...
  27. What is Genetic profile?
    Genetic profile is the information about specific genes and markers, including variations and gene expression, in ...
  28. What is Genetic recombination?
    Genetic recombination (also known as genetic reshuffling) is the exchange of genetic material between different organisms ...
  29. What is Genetic variation?
    Genetic variation describes the difference in dna among individuals. there are multiple sources of genetic variation, ...
  30. What is Genetically modified organism?
    Genetically modified organisms are the same as transgenic animals. these are those animals that have had ...
  31. What are Genetics?
    Genetics is the study of heredity or inheritance of traits. heredity is a biological process where ...
  32. What are Genome wide association studies?
    In genetics, a genome-wide association study, also known as whole genome association study, is an observational ...
  33. What is Genome?
    The entire dna set or the genetic information of an organism is called genome. it is ...
  34. What is Genomic imprinting?
    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner ...
  35. What are Genomics?
    The study of genome is known as genomics. it is concerned with the structure, mapping, function, ...
  36. What is Genotype?
    The genetic makeup of an individual that gives rise to different phenotype. the genetic makeup cannot ...
  37. What are Gibberellins (GA)?
    Ga stimulate stem elongation, pollen development, pollen tube growth, fruit growth, and seed development and germination, ...
  38. What is Glia?
    Glia, also called glial cells or neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system and ...
  39. What is Glycogen?
    Glycogen is a multibranched polymer of glucose and is not a linear molecule. it has the ...
  40. What are Glycoproteins?
    Glycoproteins have important functions in the body. most of the secretory proteins are glycoproteins. the carbohydrate ...
  41. What is Glyosidic linkage?
    The bond that joins one carbohydrate to another molecule which may or may not be a ...
  42. What is Golgi apparatus?
    The golgi apparatus is also called a golgi complex or golgi body. this structure is similar ...
  43. What is Gram negative bacteria?
    Gram-negative bacteria are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on earth that support life. the gram-negative ...
  44. What is Gram positive bacteria?
    Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the gram stain test, which is ...
  45. What is Grana?
    A typical chloroplast can have anywhere from 10 to 100 grana. it is the primary site ...
  46. What is Gravitropism?
    Gravitropism is also known as geotropism, and is a coordinated process of differential growth by a ...
  47. What is Ground tissue system?
    The ground tissue of plants includes all tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular. it can ...
  48. What is Growth factor?
    Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes foe example the thyroid hormones ...
  49. What is Growth hormone?
    Growth hormone is also known as human growth hormone. it is a peptide hormone that incites ...
  50. What are Guard cells?
    Guard cells are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are ...
  51. What is Guttation?
    Guttation is the exudation of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves ...
  52. What are Gymnosperms?
    The gymnosperms, also known as acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, ...
  53. What is Half life?
    It is the time taken for any element to decay to at least half of it ...
  54. What is Haploid?
    Haploid is the term used when a cell has half the normal number of chromosomes or ...
  55. What is Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?
    It states that the allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation ...
  56. What is Heart attack?
    Myocardial infarction is commonly known as a heart attack and occurs when blood flow decreases or ...
  57. What is Heart murmur?
    Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that ...
  58. What is Heart rate?
    Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions (beats) of ...
  59. What is Heart?
    The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels ...
  60. What is Heat of vaporization?
    The heat of vaporization is also called the enthalpy of evaporation and it is the energy ...