Microbiology: Definitions and explanations page 1 PDF Book

Learn microbiology terms with definitions and explanations, microbiology terminologies (Page 1) for science degree programs.


  1. What is Β-Lactam Ring?
    The β-lactam ring consists of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. this structure has an ...
  2. What is Β-Lactam?
    β-lactams come under the category of antibiotics whose molecular structure consist of β-lactam ring. these antibiotics ...
  3. What is Β-Lactamase?
    β-lactamase is an enzyme that is produced by bacteria to inactivate the β-lactam ring in the ...
  4. What is Β-Oxidation Pathway?
    Acute infections are those infections, which start immediately without showing symptoms only for a shorter period ...
  5. What is 3, 5-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)?
    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp, cyclic amp or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is derived from atp i.e. adenosine ...
  6. What are Ab Toxins?
    Ab toxins are the exotoxins that are made up of two components which are a and ...
  7. What is Abiogenesis?
    Abiogenesis is the notion that on earth, living things arose from nonliving things or matter such ...
  8. What is Abiotic?
    Abiotic factors or abiotic components are a nonliving part of an ecosystem, which affect the functioning ...
  9. What is ABO Blood Group System?
    Abo blood group system is the categorization of human blood groups based on the hereditary properties ...
  10. What is Abscess?
    An abscess is a swollen and a painful pus, which is caused by a bacterial, fungal ...
  11. What is Abyssal Zone?
    Abyssal zone is a layer in the ocean's pelagic zone. since this zone is quite deep ...
  12. What are Accessory Pigments?
    Accessory pigments are the compounds, which absorb light. these pigments are found in organisms that photosynthesize ...
  13. What is Acetyl-CoA Pathway?
    The acetyl-coa pathway is a biochemical pathway that uses co2 as a source of carbon and ...
  14. What is Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA)?
    Acetyl-coa is a combination of coenzyme a and acetic acid. acetyl-coa is manufactured by several catabolic ...
  15. What is Acid Fast Stain?
    Acid-fast stain is a staining technique that is used to assess the acid-fast organisms belonging to ...
  16. What is Acid-Fast Staining?
    To be pasted (acid fast stain). ...
  17. What is Acid-Fast?
    Acid-fast are the organisms or bacteria such as mycobacteria, whose cell walls contain lipid substances in ...
  18. What are Acidic Dyes?
    Acidic dyes are the ones that have groups, which are negatively charged or are anionic such ...
  19. What is Acidic?
    Acidic solution has a ph value below 7, which can be determined with the help of ...
  20. What are Acidophiles?
    Acidophiles/acidophilic are the organisms, which grow under extreme acidic conditions. the growth of acidophilic organisms is ...
  21. What is Acquired Immune Tolerance?
    Acquired immune tolerance is a state in which the antigen, which were once considered as foreign, ...
  22. What is Acquired Immunity?
    Acquired immunity is the type of immunity, which is not innate and is developed when a ...
  23. What are Actin Filaments?
    Actin filaments are the linear polymers of g-actin subunits or globular actin subunits and are present ...
  24. What are Actinobacteria?
    Actinobacteria are gram-positive bacteria whose dna has have high cytosine and guanine content. they can be ...
  25. What is Actinomycete?
    Actinomycetes are filamentous and rod shaped fungus-like bacteria. the ones that are rod shaped are likely ...
  26. What are Actinorhizae?
    Actinorhizae are the associations and a symbiotic relationship between the fine plant roots and actinomycete. this ...
  27. What is Activated Lymphocyte?
    Activated lymphocytes are the 't' or 'b' cells, which are stimulated when they receive immune stimuli ...
  28. What is Activated Sludge Treatment?
    Activated sludge treatment is a method to treat wastewater from industries and sewage by using aeration ...
  29. What is Activated Sludge?
    Activate sludge is the aerated sewage (solid matter or sediment) that contains aerobic microorganisms. these microorganisms' ...
  30. What is Activation Energy?
    Activation energy is the amount of energy that is needed to bring together the reacting molecules ...
  31. What is Activator Protein?
    Activator protein are transcription factors or transcriptional regulatory proteins that enhance the transcription of multiple genes. ...
  32. What is Active Carrier?
    An active carrier is an individual who is infected and can transmit the disease to other ...
  33. What is Active Immunity?
    Active immunity is a defense system of the immune system that is acquired when antigen directly ...
  34. What is Active Immunization?
    Active immunization is the type of immunity, which is induced when an organism is exposed to ...
  35. What is Active Site?
    Active site is present on the enzyme to which the substrate binds to form the enzyme-substrate ...
  36. What is Active Transport?
    Active transport is a process in which energy is required to move the molecules across a ...
  37. What are Acute Infections?
    Acute infection is a type of infection in which the microbe lives inside a host for ...
  38. What are Acute Viral Gastroenteritis?
    Acute viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection that causes pain/cramping in the abdomen, watery diarrhea, fever ...
  39. What are Acute-Phase Proteins?
    Acute phase proteins are the liver proteins, which help in preventing the blood loss and help ...
  40. What is Acute?
    To be pasted (acute infections) ...
  41. What is Acyclovir?
    Acyclovir is a manmade analog of purine, which helps to block the synthesis of dna in ...
  42. What is Adaptive Mutation?
    adaptive mutation is an idea that genetic changes or more specifically, mutations will increase when organisms ...
  43. What is Adenine Arabinoside (Vidarabine)?
    Adenine arabinoside also known as vidarabine is an antibiotic or an antiviral agent that is extracted ...
  44. What is Adenine?
    Adenine is derived from purines and is found in nucleic acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and nucleosides. it ...
  45. What is Adenosine 5-Triphosphate (ATP)?
    Adenosine triphosphate (atp) is a high-energy molecule and a central metabolite that has an important function ...
  46. What is Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)?
    Adenosine diphosphate (adp) is made of one two phosphate groups and adenosine. when another phosphate group ...
  47. What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
    Atp or adenosine triphosphate is an organic chemical, which stores energy and delivers it in all ...
  48. What is Adenovirus?
    Adenoviruses are the non-enveloped dna viruses, which are responsible for causing respiratory illnesses such as conjunctivitis ...
  49. What is Adhesin?
    adhesins are components of the cell surface of bacteria, which help to adhere a bacterium to ...
  50. What is Adhesion?
    Adhesion or bacterial adhesion is a process, which helps bacteria to adhere to other cells and ...
  51. What is Adjuvant?
    Adjuvant is any material or substance that is attached with the antigen and administered as a ...
  52. What is Aerial Mycelium?
    Aerial mycelium is that part of mycelium that grows outwards or upwards from substrate's surface and ...
  53. What is Aerobe?
    Aerobes are organisms that grow and reproduce if there is presence of oxygen in the environment. ...
  54. What is Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophy (AANP)?
    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (aapbs) are alphaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria and these are obligate aerobes that trap ...
  55. What is Aerobic Respiration?
    Aerobic respiration is process in which cellular energy is produced by using oxygen. roughly 36 atp ...
  56. What is Aerotolerant Anaerobe?
    Aerotolerant anaerobes are those anaerobes, which can tolerate the presence of oxygen or can guard themselves ...
  57. What is Aetiology?
    Aetiology is defined as the study of the causes or origin of a disease or disorder. ...
  58. What is Aflatoxin?
    Aflatoxins are produced by some fungi, which are present on agricultural crops like peanuts, tree nuts, ...
  59. What is Agammaglobulinemia?
    Agammaglobulinemia is a group of immune deficiencies that are inherited and diagnosed by very low antibodies ...
  60. What is Agar?
    Agar has a consistency of jelly and is acquired from red algae. it is composed of ...