Microbiology: Definitions and explanations page 3

Learn microbiology terms with definitions and explanations, microbiology terminologies (Page 3) for science degree programs.


  1. What is Anergy?
    Anergy or immunologic tolerance is a term that is used to describe the inability of immune ...
  2. What is Angstrom?
    Angstrom is a unit for length. it is equal to 1/10th of a millimicron, or 1/10th ...
  3. What is Anion?
    Anions are those atoms or groups of atoms (radicals) which have received electrons and thus have ...
  4. What is Anisogamy?
    Anisogamy is the rate of two types of gametes of distinct sizes within a population and ...
  5. What is Anneal?
    Annealing is a procedure in which the sample is at first solidified (frozen) and after that ...
  6. What is Anoxic?
    Anoxic is a condition in which oxygen is not present. many microbes do not require oxygen ...
  7. What is Anoxygenic Photosynthesis?
    Anoxygenic photosynthesis is a type of photosynthesis in which light is trapped converted to atp and ...
  8. What is Antagonism?
    Antagonism is the relationship in which bacteria compete with other microorganisms to survive better in the ...
  9. What is Anthrax?
    Anthrax is a disease that is transmitted from animals to humans (zoonosis) and is caused by ...
  10. What is Anti-Idiotype?
    Anti-idiotype antibody function by binding to an idiotype of another antibody, which is mostly the antibody ...
  11. What is Anti-Oncogene?
    Antioncogene or tumor repressor gene is a gene, which represses cancer or the path of cancer. ...
  12. What is Antibiotic?
    Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents, which function against the bacteria and are the most vital antibacterial substances ...
  13. What is Antibody Affinity?
    Antibody affinity is the term that is used to refer the strength and force with which ...
  14. What is Antibody Class Switching?
    Immunoglobulin class switching is also known as isotype commutation, class-switch recombination (csr) or isotype switching and ...
  15. What is Antibody Titer?
    Antibody titer is a test that identifies the antibodies and measures their amount that is produced ...
  16. What is Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (Adcc)?
    Adcc is the process in which the cytotoxic effector cells kills the antibody-coated target cells via ...
  17. What is Antibody?
    Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are y-shaped proteins, which are produced by plasma cells. immune system ...
  18. What is Anticodon?
    Anticodon is a sequence made of three bases that are present on the transfer rna (trna) ...
  19. What is Antigen Binding Site?
    To be pasted (antigen binding fragment) ...
  20. What is Antigen Processing?
    Antigen processing, also known as cytosolic pathway, is a process of the immune system to prepare ...
  21. What is Antigen-Binding Fragment?
    Antigen binding fragment is a fragment on the antibody that binds to the antigens. this consists ...
  22. What are Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs)?
    Antigen presenting cells (apcs) are a group of immune cells that assist the cellular immune response ...
  23. What is Antigen?
    Antigen is any substance that is considered foreign by the body's immune system and thus it ...
  24. What is Antigenic Determinant?
    Antigenic determinant, also known as epitope, is a region or portion on antigen that stimulates an ...
  25. What is Antigenic Drift?
    Antigenic drift is a process that takes places in viruses to generate variation by accumulating mutations ...
  26. What is Antigenic Shift?
    Antigenic shift is the mechanism in which different virus's strains combine together to create a new ...
  27. What is Antigenic Variation?
    Antigenic variation is a mechanism that is adopted by infectious agents or microbes such as bacterium, ...
  28. What is Antihistamine?
    Antihistamines are drugs, which act against the action of histamines. histamines are agents in the body ...
  29. What is Antimetabolite?
    Antimetabolites are drugs that block the metabolic pathway functions by acting substitutes to the original metabolites ...
  30. What is Antimicrobial Agent?
    Antimicrobial agents that either kill or stop the growth of microorganisms. these agents can be chemical, ...
  31. What is Antiport?
    Antiport is a process in which a cell moves an ion across the membrane, down the ...
  32. What is Antisense RNA?
    Antisense rna also known as natural antisense transcript, antisense oligonucleotide or as asantisense transcript, is a ...
  33. What is Antisepsis?
    Antisepsis is a term that is used for preventing infection either by obstructing the multiplication and ...
  34. What is Antiseptic?
    Antiseptics are chemical agents or disinfectants that is commonly being used at healthcare settings and hospitals ...
  35. What is Antiserum?
    Antisera are present in humans' blood or in other organisms and are a part of their ...
  36. What is Antitoxin?
    Antitoxins are antibodies which help to neutralize any toxin. these antibodies can be produced in response ...
  37. What is Apical Complex?
    Apical complex is the cell structure that is characteristic of phylum apicomplexa. this is the main ...
  38. What is Apicomplexan?
    Apicomplexa are parasitic alveolates, which mostly have a distinct organelle that has a plastid known as ...
  39. What is Apicoplast?
    Apicoplasts are plastids, which are non-photosynthetic and are mostly found in apicomplexa. they are known as ...
  40. What is Apoenzyme?
    Apoenzymes are inactive parts of enzymes that have nonprotein components attached with them. these enzymes become ...
  41. What is Apoptosis?
    Apoptosis is a natural death of cell that is programmed and this process occurs in organisms ...
  42. What is Aporepressor?
    Aporepressors are inactive protein repressors; however, once they combine with specific corepressor, they become activated and ...
  43. What is Appressorium?
    Appressorium is a cell that is commonly found in plant infecting fungi that helps to infect ...
  44. What is Aptamer?
    Aptamer is a peptide or an oligonucleotide molecule that binds to a target molecule such as ...
  45. What is Aquifer?
    Aquifer is a layer of rock that bears water and is permeable, under the ground. with ...
  46. What is Arbovirus?
    Arbovirus is a term that is used for a group of viral infections which infect the ...
  47. What is Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi?
    Arbuscular mycorrhizas or endomycorrhizas are the mychorrhizas in which am fungi or symbiont fungus enter the ...
  48. What are Archaea?
    Archaea is a group of prokaryotes or single-celled microorganisms. these types of cells do not have ...
  49. What is Archaerhodopsin?
    Archaerhodopsin is a receptor protein family found in archaea. these proteins respond to light and is ...
  50. What is Artemisinin?
    Artemisinin is a drug that is used against malaria (caused by plasmodium falciparum) and helps to ...
  51. What are Arthroconidia (Arthrospores)?
    Arthroconidia are fungal spores that are produced by fragmentation or segmentation from the already present fungal ...
  52. What is Arthus Reaction?
    Arthus reactions or type iii hypersensitivity reactions usually do not occur after vaccination but can occur ...
  53. What is Artificial Chromosome?
    Artificial chromosomes, also known as synthetic chromosomes, are fragments of dna that are incorporated into host's ...
  54. What is Artificially Acquired Active Immunity?
    Artificially acquired active immunity is a type of immunity that is produced when a person is ...
  55. What is Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity?
    Artificially acquires passive immunity is a type of immunization that provides short-term immunity by transferring the ...
  56. What is Ascocarp?
    Ascocarps or ascomata is ascomycete's fruiting body. it is made of hyphae, which is tightly interwoven ...
  57. What is Ascogenous Hypha?
    This type of hyphae, in ascomycota's fungi, originates in the ascogonium after it gets fused with ...
  58. What is Ascomycetes?
    Ascomycetes are the structures where spores are made within the asci (microscopic cells). the asci may ...
  59. What is Ascospore?
    Ascospores are spores that are carried by asci or were produced inside the asci. this type ...
  60. What is Ascus?
    Asci are the sexual spore-bearing cells, which are made in ascomycete fungi. usually eight ascospores are ...