Microbiology: Definitions and explanations page 4 PDF Book

Learn microbiology terms with definitions and explanations, microbiology terminologies (Page 4) for science degree programs.


  1. What is Asepsis?
    Asepsis is a term that is used to describe a state in which there is no ...
  2. What is Aseptate Hypha?
    Aseptate hyphae are a type of fungi in which the hyphae are divided in cellular compartments ...
  3. What is Aseptic Technique?
    Aseptic technique means utilizing practices and methodology to avoid the pathogenic contamination. it includes applying the ...
  4. What is Assimilatory Sulphate Reduction?
    Assimilatory sulfate redection is a pathway that is utilized by fungi, prokaryotes and photosynthetic living beings ...
  5. What is Associative Nitrogen Fixation?
    Associative n fixation (anf) is a procedure in which dinitrogen gas is transformed to ammonia by ...
  6. What is Asymptomatic?
    In medication, an illness is viewed as asymptomatic if a patient is a bearer for a ...
  7. What is Atom?
    An atom is the smallest component of a matter that consists of chemical properties of an ...
  8. What is Atomic Force?
    Atomic force microscopy (afm) also known as scanning force microscopy (sfm) is a type of scanning ...
  9. What is Atomic Mass?
    The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. it is ...
  10. What is Atomic Number?
    The atomic number or proton number (z) of an element is the proton number found in ...
  11. What is Atomic Weight?
    Atomic weight, additionally called relative atomic mass, proportion of the normal mass of a compound element's ...
  12. What is Atopy?
    Atopy is an inclination toward developing certain unfavorably susceptible hypersensitivity responses. atopy may have a component ...
  13. What is ATP Synthase?
    Atp synthase is an enzyme that creates a molecule which stores energy and is called adenosine ...
  14. What is Attack Rate?
    The attack rate, in epidemiology is the bio-statistical proportion of recurrence of morbidity, or speed of ...
  15. What is Attenuate?
    Attenuate is a term that is mostly used in immunology and it means to reduce or ...
  16. What is Attenuated Vaccine?
    An attenuated immunization is an antibody made by decreasing the destructiveness of a pathogen, yet at ...
  17. What is Attenuator?
    Attenuator is a nucleotide sequence that is present in the operon's leader region. depending on the ...
  18. What is Autoantibody?
    Auto-antibodies are those antibodies that are made against substances made by an individual's very own body. ...
  19. What is Autoantigen?
    Autoantigens are those antigens that are part of one's body or a constituent of a normal ...
  20. What is Autochthonous?
    Autochthonous are the substances or nutrients that initiate from a given environment and remain native to ...
  21. What is Autoclave?
    Autoclave is an instrument that sterilizes liquids, hollows, solids and other instruments of various sizes and ...
  22. What is Autogenous Infection?
    The meaning of prefix "auto" is self or within. this indicates that the infection is transmitted ...
  23. What is Autograft?
    Autograft is a procedure of transplantation of an organ or a tissue from one place to ...
  24. What is Autoimmune Disease?
    An autoimmune disease is a condition emerging from an abnormal immune reaction to an ordinary body ...
  25. What is Autoinducer?
    Autoinducers are molecules that are involved in signaling and are produced in response to the alterations ...
  26. What is Autoinduction?
    Autoinduction is a process in which a molecule or substance would induce other molecule to increase ...
  27. What are Autolysins?
    Autolysins are enzymes that act against bacteria and digest the cell- wall peptidoglycan of the bacterial ...
  28. What is Autophagocytosis?
    Autophagy, additionally called autophagocytosis, is the degradation of abnormal, worn or disfunctioning components of cells and ...
  29. What is Autophagosome?
    An autophagosome is a round in shape and structure having twofold layer membranes. it is the ...
  30. What is Autoradiography?
    Autoradiography is the utilization of x-rays (or every so often photographic) film to recognize radioactive materials. ...
  31. What is Autosome?
    An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). the individuals from ...
  32. What is Autotroph?
    An autotroph, also known as a primary producer, is a life form that produces organic compounds ...
  33. What is Auxotroph?
    An auxotroph, when compared with the parental organism from which it is derived, needs additional nutritional ...
  34. What is Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI)?
    Average nucleotide identity (ani) compares the nucleotide similarity among the coding regions of two genomes. the ...
  35. What is Avidity?
    Avidity is the concept that measures the stability of the antigen-antibodies complex and this is determined ...
  36. What is Axenic?
    Axenic is a term used in biology to describe a type of culture that is not ...
  37. What is Axial Filament?
    Axial filaments help spirochaetes to distinguish itself from other phyla of bacteria. in periplasmic space, these ...
  38. What is Axopodium?
    Axopodium is a pseudopodium, which contains an axial rod covered by an ectoplasmic sheath that is ...
  39. What is Azidothymidine (AZT)?
    Azidothymidine, also known as zidovudine, is a medication that is antiretroviral and helps to treat and ...
  40. What is Azole?
    Azoles are five-membered heterocyclic compounds that contain one nitrogen atom and any other atom, which is ...
  41. What is B Cell (B Lymphocyte)?
    B cells or b-lymphocytes are a type of wbcs. they have a role in humoral immunity ...
  42. What is B-Cell Receptor (BCR)?
    The b-cell receptor is made of immunoglobulin molecules, which form a transmembrane receptor protein situated on ...
  43. What is B7 (Cd80) Protein?
    B7 is a peripheral membrane protein present on apcs or antigen presenting cells which when combined ...
  44. What is Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)?
    Bcg or bacillus calmette-guerin vaccine is commonly used to prevent tuberculosis. one dose of bcg vaccine ...
  45. What is Bacillus?
    Bacillus is a rod-shaped bacterium and is gram positive. it may survive under aerobic or anaerobic ...
  46. What are Bacteremia?
    Bacteremia is a state, which is used to describe the presence of bacteria in blood. this ...
  47. What are Bacteria?
    Bacteria are single-celled, microscopic organisms that can survive in multiple environments. these procaryotes are different to ...
  48. What is Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC)?
    Bacterial artificial chromosome is made of dna and is commonly used to cloning and transforming in ...
  49. What is Bacterial Chromosome?
    Bacterial chromosome is a circular prokaryote chromosome that is present in archaea and bacteria in the ...
  50. What is Bactericidal?
    To be pasted (bactericide) ...
  51. What is Bactericide?
    A bactericide is an agent or a substance that is used to kill the bacteria. these ...
  52. What are Bacteriochlorophylls?
    Bacteriochlorophylls (bchl) are photosynthetic pigments or modified chlorophyll that are present in multiple phototrophic bacteria. in ...
  53. What is Bacteriocin?
    Bacteriocins are peptide or proteinaceous toxins made by bacteria to stop the growth of closely related ...
  54. What is Bacteriophage (Phage) Typing?
    Phage typing is a technique that is utilized to detect single bacterial strains. this method helps ...
  55. What is Bacteriophage?
    Bacteriophages are types of viruses, which infect only bacteria. the literal meaning of word bacteriophage is ...
  56. What is Bacteriostatic?
    Bacteriostat or bacteriostatic agent is a chemical or biological agent that stops or inhibits the bacterial ...
  57. What is Bacteroid?
    Bacteroid is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is irregularly shaped. these bacteria are present in root nodules ...
  58. What are Baculoviruses?
    Baculoviruses are those pathogens, which attack or infect insects or some other arthropods. they are usually ...
  59. What are Baeocytes?
    Baeocyte is a small reproductive cell, which is spherical in shape. these were previously known endospores ...
  60. What is Barophile?
    Barophiles also known as piezophiles, are organisms that survive in environments having high pressures such as ...