Microbiology: Definitions and explanations page 6 PDF | Download eBooks

Learn microbiology terms with definitions and explanations, microbiology terminologies (Page 6) for science degree programs.


  1. What is Booster?
    Booster dose is an additional dose of a vaccine after a prime dose. a booster dose ...
  2. What is Botulin?
    Botulinum toxin, produced by clostridium botulinum, is a neurotoxic protein. this protein prevents the release of ...
  3. What is Bradykinin?
    Bradykinin mediates inflammation. it is made up of peptides, which dilate the blood vessels by releasing ...
  4. What is Bright-Field Microscope?
    Bright-field microscope is a simple optical microscope in which the illumination from the sample is transmitted ...
  5. What is Broad Spectrum?
    Broad-spectrum term is used for the broad-spectrum antibiotics which act against the two major groups of ...
  6. What is Brownian Movement?
    Brownian motion/movement, also known as pedesis, is the motion of particles in random directions. these particles ...
  7. What is Brucellosis?
    Brucellosis, a disease, is caused by a bacterial group from the genus brucella. this is a ...
  8. What is Bt?
    Bt is an insecticide that is produced by a bacterium named as bacillus thuringiensis (bt) which ...
  9. What is Bubo?
    Bubo is an inflammation or adenitis of the lymph nodes and is a type of reactive ...
  10. What is Budding?
    Budding is an asexual reproduction, which causes development of a new organism from a bud or ...
  11. What is Bulking Sludge?
    Sludge bulking takes place when in the sedimentation tanks sludge fails to separate out. the growth ...
  12. What is Bulla?
    Bulla (plural: bullae), a type of blister, is a fluid-filled lesion or a sac that originated ...
  13. What is Butanediol Fermentation?
    Butanediol fermentation or 2,3-butanediol fermentation is anaerobic fermentation of glucose with 2,3-butanediol as the end product. ...
  14. What is Calculus?
    Calculus, also known as tartar, is a type of hardened dental plaque. the precipitation of minerals ...
  15. What is Calorie?
    Calorie is a unit to measure energy. the gram calorie or the small calorie, denoted as ...
  16. What is Calvin Cycle?
    Calvin cycle is a three key steps process and includes reactions in photosynthesis, which are light ...
  17. What is Cancer?
    Cancer, also known as malignancy, is the growth of cells in an abnormal fashion. until now ...
  18. What are Cannulae?
    Cannulae are tubelike structures, which are hollow and are present on the surface of thermophilic archaea ...
  19. What is Capsid?
    Capsids are protein shells of viruses. these shells are made up of protomers. protomers are oligomeric ...
  20. What is Capsomer?
    Capsomeres are the subunits of capsids. capsids are the outer covering made of proteins that provides ...
  21. What is Capsule Staining?
    Capsule staining is a technique that is used to reveal the absence or presence of capsules. ...
  22. What is Capsule?
    The capsule is a part of bacterial structure, which is composed of polysaccharide, and the layer ...
  23. What is Carbohydrate?
    Carbohydrates are the starches, fibers and sugars found in products such as fruits, vegetables and grains. ...
  24. What is Carbon To Nitrogen Ratio?
    Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio in a substance is a ratio of carbon mass to nitrogen mass. it can ...
  25. What is Carbonate Equilibrium System?
    The carbonate equilibrium system is a system in which there is exchange of c03 z-, c02 ...
  26. What are Carboxysomes?
    Carboxysomes, intracellular organelles, are made up of proteinaceous shell that encapsulates ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) and enzyme ...
  27. What is Carbuncle?
    A carbuncle is a swollen and painful cluster of boils that is red in color and ...
  28. What is Carcinogen?
    Carcinogens are radiations or any substances that stimulates carcinogenesis (cancer formation). either the cellular metabolic processes ...
  29. What is Carcinoma?
    Carcinoma is cancer form that is initiated in the cells that line the tissues of organs ...
  30. What are Cardinal Temperatures?
    Cardinal temperatures are the minimum or maximum temperatures through which the limits of growth and development ...
  31. What is Carotenoid?
    Carotenoids, also known as tetraterpenoids, are red, yellow and orange organic pigments that are produced by ...
  32. What is Carrier?
    Carriers or hereditary carriers are people or organisms, which have inherited an allele (recessive) for a ...
  33. What is Caseous Lesion?
    Caseous lesion or necrosis is the lesion that is caused by mycobacterium and these resemble curd ...
  34. What is Casual Carrier?
    Casual carriers are individuals or organisms that contain an infection causing agent only for a short ...
  35. What is Catabolism?
    Catabolism is a set of multiple pathways which causes the breakdown of molecules into smaller and ...
  36. What is Catabolite Activator Protein (CAP)?
    Catabolite activator proteins are trans-acting transcriptional activators, which are present in the form of homodimers in ...
  37. What is Catabolite Repression?
    Catabolite repression or carbon catabolite repression is a crucial part of global control system of microorganisms ...
  38. What is Catalase?
    Catalase is an enzyme that is commonly found in almost all the living organisms that are ...
  39. What is Catalyst?
    Catalysts are those substances which when added to a reaction speeds up the rate of reaction ...
  40. What is Catalyzed Reporter Deposition-Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (Card-Fish)?
    Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (card-fish) is a potent methodology with an increasing applications ...
  41. What are Catenanes?
    catenane is a mechanically-interlocked molecular architecture that consists of two or more macrocycles that are interlocked ...
  42. What are Cathelicidins?
    Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides that are primarily stored in the macrophage's ...
  43. What is Cation?
    Cations are ions that have a net positive charge because they have more protons than electrons. ...
  44. What is Cecum?
    Cecum is an intraperitoneal pouch that is known as the start of the large intestine. it ...
  45. What is Cell Cycle?
    Cell cycle is divided into two main stages in eukaryotes and these stages are mitotic (m) ...
  46. What is Cell Envelope?
    Cell envelop consists of the cell wall and the inner cell membrane of bacteria. an outer ...
  47. What is Cell Wall?
    A cell wall is an organizational layer that surrounds a few types of cells outside the ...
  48. What is Cell-Mediated?
    cell mediated immunity involves the activation of antigen-specific cytotoxic t- lymphocytes, phagocytes, resulting in the release ...
  49. What is Cellulose?
    Cellulose is a polysaccharide with the formlula (c6h10o5). it is an organic compound, having a linear ...
  50. What is Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDC)?
    Cdc was established in 1946 and is under the management of department of health and human ...
  51. What is Central Dogma of Biology?
    The central dogma of molecular biology describes the two-step process, by which the information stored in ...
  52. What are Central Metabolic Pathways?
    The two central metabolic pathways are characterized by their catabolic or anabolic ability. the anabolic pathway ...
  53. What is Central Tolerance?
    Central tolerance is the process of eliminating any developing t or b-lymphocytes that might be reactive ...
  54. What is Centromere?
    The centromere is the specialized dna sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister ...
  55. What is Cephalosporin?
    The cephalosporins are a group of β-lactam antibiotics, derived from the fungus named acremonium, (which was ...
  56. What is Cercaria?
    Depending upon the life cycle of the trematode, the cercariae germinate from the germ balls in ...
  57. What is Cestode?
    Cestodes can cause infections both in adult and larval stages. infections caused by the adult tapeworms ...
  58. What is Chain Termination DNA Sequencing Method?
    Chain termination method, widely known as the sanger sequencing is a method of dna sequencing, based ...
  59. What is Chancre?
    A chancre is a commonly formed painless genital ulcer, resulting from syphilis. formed approximately 21 days ...
  60. What is Chancroid?
    Chancroid is a bacterial infection that results in the formation of open sores on or around ...