Microbiology: Definitions and explanations page 7 PDF | Download eBooks

Learn microbiology terms with definitions and explanations, microbiology terminologies (Page 7) for science degree programs.


  1. What are Chaperone Proteins?
    Chaperones are proteins that help in the assembly or disassembly and covalent folding or unfolding of ...
  2. What is Chemical Bond?
    A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between ions, molecules or atoms, that results in the ...
  3. What is Chemical Oxygen Demand (Cod)?
    The chemical oxygen demand (cod), in environmental chemistry, is an indicative measure of the amount of ...
  4. What is Chemiosmotic Hypothesis?
    Proposed by peter mitchell, the chemiosmotic hypothesis states that a proton motive force is responsible for ...
  5. What is Chemoautotroph?
    A chemoautotroph is an organism that can synthesize its own organic molecules by the fixation of ...
  6. What is Chemoheterotroph?
    Contrary to chemoautotrophs, chemo heterotrophs are not able to synthesize organic molecules on their own. instead, ...
  7. What is Chemokine?
    Chemokines are a group of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells. they have an ...
  8. What are Chemolithoautotrophs?
    Chemolithoautotrophs are those organisms that obtain their necessary carbon, required for metabolic processes from carbon dioxide ...
  9. What are Chemolithoheterotrophs?
    Chemolithoheterotrophs are those organisms, which get their energy either from inorganic minerals or from other geological ...
  10. What are Chemoorganoheterotrophs?
    Chemoorganoheterotrophs are the organisms that require organic substrates to obtain the carbon reuired for their growth ...
  11. What are Chemoreceptors?
    A chemoreceptor, also called a chemo sensor, is a specialized sensory that converts a chemical substance ...
  12. What is Chemostat?
    A chemostat (stat: static) is a bioreactor. as fresh liquid is continuously added to it, the ...
  13. What are Chemotaxins?
    A chemotaxin is an agent, e.g., a complement component, which induces chemotaxis. it is either a ...
  14. What is Chemotaxis?
    The movement of an organism, in response to a chemical stimulus is known as chemotaxis. the ...
  15. What are Chemotherapeutic Agents?
    Chemotherapeutic agents (also known as antineoplastic agents), are the compounds used to inhibit the proliferation of ...
  16. What is Chemotherapy?
    Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment technique, in which one or more anti-cancer drugs are used, as ...
  17. What is Chemotroph?
    The organisms, that derive their energy from the oxidation of the electron donors in their environment, ...
  18. What is Chimera?
    A chimera is an organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes. in the case of animals, ...
  19. What is Chiral?
    A molecule or ion that is non-superimposable on its mirror image is a chiral molecule. one ...
  20. What is Chitin?
    Chitin (formula: c8h13o5n)n) is a long chain polymer of n-acetylglucosamine. it is a derivative of glucose, ...
  21. What are Chlamydiae?
    The phylum chlamydiae consists of a group of obligate bacteria that are intracellular and very diverse. ...
  22. What is Chloramphenicol?
    Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic with the chemical formula (c11h12cl2n2o5). produced either from the bacterium streptomyces venezuelae ...
  23. What are Chlorophylls?
    Chlorophylls are the several related green pigments that are present in the mesosomes of cyanobacteria and ...
  24. What is Chloroplast?
    Chloroplasts are the cell organelles that carry the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll and hence are responsible for ...
  25. What are Chlorosomes?
    A chlorosome, commonly found in green sulfur bacteria and a few green filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs, is ...
  26. What is Choleragen?
    Choleragen (also called cholera toxin and often abbreviated as ct, ctx or ctx) is secreted by ...
  27. What is Cholesterol?
    Cholesterol is an organic molecule with the chemical formula c27h46o. the word cholesterol is derived from ...
  28. What is Chromatic Aberration?
    Chromatic aberration, in optics, is actually a failure of the lens to focus all colors to ...
  29. What is Chromatic Adaptation?
    According to most recent researches in the field of microbiology, a large number of bacterial species ...
  30. What is Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (Chip)?
    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (abbreviated as chip) is an important experimental technique, used to protein - dna interaction ...
  31. What is Chromatin Remodeling?
    Chromatin remodeling is the alteration of chromatin architecture, such that it allows the regulatory transcription machinery ...
  32. What is Chromatin?
    Chromatin, found in eukaryotic cells, is a complex of protein and dna. its basic function is ...
  33. What is Chromogen?
    In chemistry, chromogen is defined as a colorless (or weakly colored) chemical compound, which can be ...
  34. What is Chromophore Group?
    Chromophore or chromophore group is a part of molecule and gives color to that particular molecule. ...
  35. What is Chromophore?
    A chromophore is basically the part of a molecule that is responsible for its color. it ...
  36. What is Chromosome?
    A chromosome is a dna (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule. it carries part of or all the genetic ...
  37. What is Chronic Carrier?
    A chronic or asymptotic carrier is a term used for a person or any organism that ...
  38. What is Chronic Inflammation?
    Chronic inflammation is a type of inflammation that is not acute and usually has whole-body and ...
  39. What is Chronic?
    A human health condition or disease is termed as 'chronic', if it is persistent or long ...
  40. What are Chytrids?
    Chytrid is an informal name of chytridiomycota, which are a division of zoosporic organisms in the ...
  41. What are Ciliates (Ciliophora)?
    Ciliates belong to protozoa group that are noticed by the presence of cilia (hair-like organelles). cilia ...
  42. What is Cilium (Pl. Cilia)?
    A cilium is an organelle of eukaryotic cells. these are thin and long protuberances that protrude ...
  43. What is Clamp Connection?
    Clamp connection is a structure that resembles a hook and is formed by rising hyphal cells ...
  44. What is Class?
    Class is a taxonomic rank in biological classification. it is also a taxonomic unit, a taxon, ...
  45. What is Classical Complement Pathway?
    Classical complement pathway is the major effector for the antibody action. the classical pathway of complement ...
  46. What is Classification?
    Classification or biological classification is the procedure through which the scientists categorize the living organisms. these ...
  47. What is Clonal Selection Theory?
    Clonal selection theory is a theory explaining the function of lymphocytes that are activated as a ...
  48. What is Clonal Selection?
    Clonal selection is a process that was projected to explain and describe how one b or ...
  49. What is Clone?
    Clones are those organisms that have exactly the same genetic makeup, i.e., their dna is completely ...
  50. What is Cloning Host?
    A cloning host is an organism within which the recombinant dna is introduced to be replicated. ...
  51. What is Cloning Vector?
    A cloning vector is a small fragment of dna into which a foreign dna fragment can ...
  52. What is Cloning?
    Cloning is the process by which genetically identical individuals of an organism are produced, either artificially ...
  53. What are Clue Cells?
    Clue cells are squamous epithelial cells in the vagina that are coated with the anaerobic bacteria ...
  54. What is Coagulase?
    Coagulase is a protein enzyme that enables fibrinogen to convert into fibrin. it is produced by ...
  55. What is Coagulation?
    Coagulation is the process by which blood is changed from the liquid to gel form, resulting ...
  56. What are Coated Vesicles?
    clathrin coated vesicles (ccvs) are responsible for the vesicular transport of cargo (like proteins) between ...
  57. What are Cocci?
    Cocci is the plural for coccus, which is a term used for a bacterium or archaeon ...
  58. What is Coccobacillus?
    Coccobacilli (plural) are the bacteria that have a shape, which resembles that of cocci (spherical) and ...
  59. What is Coccolithophore?
    Coccolithophores are unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton. according to the robert whittaker's five kingdom classification, they belong to ...
  60. What is Code Degeneracy?
    Code degeneracy or degeneracy of codons is the redundancy of the genetic code that is presented ...